As a family district court, the 318th District Court has concurrent jurisdiction with the other district courts in Midland County. The Court's primary responsibility is hearing cases involving family law matters, including:
- Child abuse and neglect
- Child custody
- Child support
The 318th District Court was created by the Family District Court Act of 1977, replacing the former Domestic Relations Court of Midland County. Judge Joseph H. Mims, then presiding judge of the Domestic Relations Court, was the first judge of the 318th District Court, serving from September 1, 1977 until his retirement in early 1978.
He was succeeded by Judge Barbara G. Culver, who served from March 20, 1978 until her appointment to the Texas Supreme Court in January 1988. Judge Dean Rucker was appointed to succeed Judge Culver as District Judge and served from February 18, 1988 until his retirement on December 31, 2014. Judge David W. Lindemood has served as District Judge since January 1, 2015.